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Why do amino acids need to be coded by triplets of three bases?

Why do amino acids need to be coded by triplets of three bases?

Thus, a triplet code introduces the problem of there being more than three times the number of codons than amino acids. Either these “extra” codons produce redundancy, with multiple codons encoding the same amino acid, or there must instead be numerous dead-end codons that are not linked to any amino acid.

Why must there be 3 bases in each code?

DNA is comprised of 4 different nucleotides (A, C, T, and G), whereas proteins are made of 20 amino acids. Codons are nucleotide triplets that encode for amino acids. Thus, in order for the 4 nucleotides to account for all 20 amino acids, a minimum of 3 base pairs are required.

Why is the genetic code read 3 bases at a time?

The genetic code is read 3 “letters” at a time, so that each “word” is 3 bases long and corresponds to a single amino acid. Because there are four different bases in RNA, how many possible three-base codons are there in the genetic codon?

Why do we have three base codons when it is possible to translate four or five base codons?

Given four DNA (and RNA) bases, and 20 amino acids, the three letter code makes a lot of sense. For example the 64 codons are not equally divided with each of the 20 amino acid having 3 codons, plus 4 extras for stop codons.

How many amino acids do our bases code for?

Three nucleotides encode an amino acid. Proteins are built from a basic set of 20 amino acids, but there are only four bases. Simple calculations show that a minimum of three bases is required to encode at least 20 amino acids.

Is DNA replication required for protein synthesis?

Both protein synthesis and DNA replication are required for the growth, development, and functioning of organisms. The initial templates of both protein synthesis and DNA replication are an unwound DNA molecule.

What happens if something goes wrong in protein synthesis?

Protein synthesis errors may also produce polypeptides displaying a gain of toxic function. In rare cases, the error may confer an alternate or pathological function on an otherwise normal, folded protein. More often, errors disrupt folding, and the misfolded molecule may be toxic.

What is used in both DNA replication and protein synthesis?

Transcription is the process by which DNA is copied (transcribed) to mRNA, which carries the information needed for protein synthesis. Transcription takes place in two broad steps. First, pre-messenger RNA is formed, with the involvement of RNA polymerase enzymes.

Why is DNA replication important before protein synthesis?

Replication is an essential process because, whenever a cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information, or DNA, as the parent cell. The replication process relies on the fact that each strand of DNA can serve as a template for duplication.

How does DNA replication affect protein synthesis?

Gene or Region Duplication Sometimes errors during DNA replication can duplicate an entire gene or region of a genome. This type of error can cause more of a protein to be produced, because after duplication, there are two genes that encode it rather than one.