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What is the function of Galactitol?

Galactitol is an optically inactive hexitol having meso-configuration. It has a role as a metabolite, a human metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite and a mouse metabolite. A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE.

What enzyme converts galactose to Galactitol?

Recent data suggests that aldose reductase is the enzyme responsible for the primary stage of this pathway. Therefore, aldose reductase reduces galactose to its sugar alcohol form, galactitol.

What means galactosemia?

Galactosemia is a disorder that affects how the body processes a simple sugar called galactose. A small amount of galactose is present in many foods. It is primarily part of a larger sugar called lactose, which is found in all dairy products and many baby formulas.

Can galactosemia be cured?

There is no cure for galactosemia or approved medication to replace the enzymes. Although a low-galactose diet can prevent or reduce the risk of some complications, it may not stop all of them.

What is the life expectancy of someone with galactosemia?

With a galactose-restricted diet patients have a normal life expectancy. However, patients may still suffer long-term complications such as problems of mental development, disorders of speech, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism and decreased bone mineral density (Bosch 2006).

What happens if galactosemia is not treated?

Most untreated children eventually die of liver failure. Surviving babies who remain untreated may have intellectual disabilities and other damage to the brain and nervous system. Even with adequate treatment, individuals with galactosemia may develop one or more of the following: Early cataracts.

What food has galactose in them?

Lactose, found in dairy products and as an extender in drugs, has been considered the primary source of galactose in the diet. Two recent publications reported that small amounts of galactose are present in many fruits and vegetables.

Is galactosemia the same as lactose intolerance?

Is galactosemia the same as lactose or milk intolerance? No, galactosemia should not be confused with lactose intolerance. People with galactosemia usually have no problems digesting lactose or absorbing galactose.

Can adults have galactosemia?

Cataracts are one of the possible complications of classic galactosemia. Cataracts are mostly observed in newborns but can also occur in adults. It is thought that 10-30% of newborns with classic galactosemia develop cataracts in the first few days or weeks of life.

What are the symptoms of galactosemia in adults?

Initial signs/symptoms may include poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, bleeding tendencies, lethargy, abdominal distension with liver swelling, and increased risk of sepsis (a reaction from a blood infection). Later symptoms can include liver failure, cataracts, and brain damage.

How do they test for galactosemia in adults?

A galactosemia test is a blood or urine test that checks for enzymes that are needed to change galactose into glucose, a sugar that your body uses for energy. A person with galactosemia doesn’t have one of these enzymes, so high levels of galactose build up in the blood or urine.

How is galactosemia diagnosed in adults?

Classic galactosemia and clinical variant galactosemia are diagnosed when galactose-1-phosphate is elevated in red blood cells and GALT enzyme activity is reduced. Molecular genetic testing is also available to identify mutations in the GALT gene.

How is a person’s health affected by galactosemia?

The disease leads to severe weight loss and your baby struggles to grow and thrive. Without treatment, over time your child may develop cataracts and can be susceptible to infections. They may have liver damage and kidney problems. Their brain may not mature well.

What is the most common enzyme deficiency that causes galactosemia?

Classic galactosemia (type 1) – the most common and severe type, caused by mutations in the GALT gene, and characterized by a complete deficiency of an enzyme called galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT).

How do you test for galactosemia?

Genetic testing for galactosemia can be performed on a CVS or amniotic fluid sample. This test evaluates the likeliness that the disorder is present in a fetus. Genetic testing is employed after birth to determine the exact type of GALT gene mutation in an infant who has a confirmed GALT enzyme deficiency.

Why does galactosemia cause mental retardation?

The mental retardation that is sometimes observed in galactosemic children may be caused by the high galactose level, the low glucose level, or both. It has been estimated that hereditary intolerance to galactose occurs in approximately one in 18,000 infants.

What is the normal range for galactosemia?

In classic galactosemia Normal level of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate is <1 mg/dL. Plasma free galactose is usually >10 mg/dL, but may be as high as 90-360 mg/dL (5-20 mmol/L). Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltranserase (GALT) enzyme activity is absent or barely detectable.

How common is Duarte galactosemia?

Duarte variant galactosemia is detected in as many as 1:3,500 screened births in some states and essentially zero in others, largely reflecting differences in NBS protocols [Pyhtila et al 2015] (see Diagnosis, Erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity).

Can you breastfeed a baby with galactosemia?

Women who have an infant with galactosemia cannot breastfeed. Breast milk contains lactose, which is broken into glucose and galactose. Infants with galactosemia have virtually no or reduced activity of the enzyme required to break down galactose.

What are consequences of galactose Epimerase deficiency?

Infants with generalized epimerase deficiency galactosemia who are on a diet containing galactose/lactose typically present with symptoms reminiscent of classic galactosemia: hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, weight loss, jaundice, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction (e.g., markedly elevated serum transaminases).

Does galactosemia affect the brain?

Untreated galactosemia causes brain damage, speech problems and reproductive problems; untreated lactose intolerance causes diarrhea, bloating and intestinal cramping. How do people get galactosemia? Galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism.

What is Galactokinase deficiency?

Galactokinase deficiency, aka galactosemia type II, is an inborn error of galactose metabolism. Galactokinase deficiency is rare and more insidious than other galactosemia types since it results in the formation of nuclear cataracts without provoking intolerance symptoms or other systemic symptoms.[1]

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes As a result, galactose-1-phosphate and related compounds can build up to toxic levels in the body. The accumulation of these substances damages tissues and organs, leading to the serious medical problems associated with classic galactosemia.

Where is Galt gene located?

Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

Location (UCSC) Chr 9: 34.64 – 34.65 Mb Chr 4: 41.76 – 41.76 Mb
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Where is Galactokinase found?

Galactokinase catalyzes the second step of the Leloir pathway, a metabolic pathway found in most organisms for the catabolism of β-D-galactose to glucose 1-phosphate. First isolated from mammalian liver, galactokinase has been studied extensively in yeast, archaea, plants, and humans.