## How do you calculate the energy needed to melt?

Let us look, for example, at how much energy is needed to melt a kilogram of ice at 0ºC to produce a kilogram of water at 0°C. Using the equation for a change in temperature and the value for water from Table 1, we find that Q = mLf = (1.0 kg)(334 kJ/kg) = 334 kJ is the energy to melt a kilogram of ice.

## What is the amount of energy needed to melt 1 kg of substance?

The amount of heat energy required to change the state of 1 kg of a substance at its melting point is called the specific latent heat of the substance. l f = 3 ⋅ 34 × 10 5 J k g − 1 for fusion (solid→liquid) or freezing (liquid→solid)

## How much energy does it take to melt one gram of ice?

– To melt 1 gram of ice requires 80 calories. (A calorie is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water 1°C.) – The change from liquid to ice is called solidification. This process will release 80 calories per gram.

## What is the formula for fusion?

An important fusion reaction for practical energy generation is that between deuterium and tritium (the D-T fusion reaction). It produces helium (He) and a neutron (n) and is written D + T → He + n. To the left of the arrow (before the reaction) there are two protons and three neutrons.

## What are the 3 steps of nuclear fusion?

The steps are:

• Two protons within the Sun fuse.
• A third proton collides with the formed deuterium.
• Two helium-3 nuclei collide, creating a helium-4 nucleus plus two extra protons that escape as two hydrogen.

## Is nuclear fusion difficult to control?

Fusion, on the other hand, is very difficult. Instead of shooting a neutron at an atom to start the process, you have to get two positively charged nuclei close enough together to get them to fuse. This is why fusion is difficult and fission is relatively simple (but still actually difficult).

## Why fusion is impossible on Earth?

Normally, fusion is not possible because the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei prevent them from getting close enough together to collide and for fusion to occur. The nuclei can then fuse, causing a release of energy.

## Why is fusion so hard?

Now, back to our original question: why is fusion energy so challenging to achieve? The simple answer is that it has been particularly difficult to obtain high enough plasma densities , temperatures , and energy confinement times simultaneously for a reactor to approach ignition conditions.

## Can we control nuclear fusion?

After several decades of research, we are confident that fusion energy is scientifically feasible. Plasma conditions that are very close to those required in a fusion reactor are now routinely reached in experiments. ITER will be the next major step forward.

## Is nuclear fusion dangerous?

Fusion on the other hand does not create any long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. A fusion reactor produces helium, which is an inert gas. It is only used in low amounts so, unlike long-lived radioactive nuclei, it cannot produce any serious danger.

## How long can nuclear fusion last?

No long-lived radioactive waste: Nuclear fusion reactors produce no high activity, long-lived nuclear waste. The activation of components in a fusion reactor is low enough for the materials to be recycled or reused within 100 years.

## Can cold fusion be achieved?

Cold fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature. There is currently no accepted theoretical model that would allow cold fusion to occur.

## Has fusion been achieved?

Nuclear fusion and plasma physics research are carried out in more than 50 countries, and fusion reactions have been successfully achieved in many experiments, albeit without demonstrating a net fusion power gain.

## What temperature is required for nuclear fusion?

The temperature must be hot enough to allow the ions to overcome the Coulomb barrier and fuse together. This requires a temperature of at least 100 million degrees Celsius.

## Why can’t fusion produce electricity?

One of the biggest reasons why we haven’t been able to harness power from fusion is that its energy requirements are unbelievably, terribly high. In order for fusion to occur, you need a temperature of at least 100,000,000 degrees Celsius. That’s slightly more than 6 times the temperature of the Sun’s core.

## What will happen if a low massive main sequence star runs out of hydrogen fuel?

When a main sequence star begins to run out of hydrogen fuel, the star becomes a red giant or a red super giant. THE DEATH OF A LOW OR MEDIUM MASS STAR After a low or medium mass or star has become a red giant the outer parts grow bigger and drift into space, forming a cloud of gas called a planetary nebula.

## How much mass is converted to energy in a hydrogen bomb?

MASS-ENERGY CONVERSION In the fission of the uranium nucleus, one-tenth of 1 per cent of the mass is converted into energy; in the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei to form helium, seven- tenths of 1 per cent.

## Is the sun hot enough for fusion?

Nuclear fusion creates heat and photons (light). The sun’s surface is about 6,000 Kelvin, which is 10,340 degrees Fahrenheit (5,726 degrees Celsius). The amount of solar heat and light is enough to light up Earth’s days and keep our planet warm enough to support life.

## Is plasma hotter than the sun?

The ITER plasma will be ten times hotter than the centre of the Sun. For a physicist, temperature is not only an indication of “cold” or “hot”; it also describes the energy of the particles that make up an object or a particular environment such as a plasma. …

## What would happen if mass is added to a 1.4 solar mass white dwarf?

What would happen if mass is added to a 1.4 solar mass white dwarf? The star would eventually become a black hole. The star would erupt as a type I supernova.

## Can a star of 2.5 solar masses ever become a white dwarf?

The upper mass-limit for a main sequence star that will go on to form a white dwarf rather than a neutron star is not precisely known but is thought to be about 8 solar masses. A 2 solar-mass star will probably end up as a 0.7 solar-mass white dwarf.

## What is the Chandrasekhar limiting mass?

The Chandrasekhar Limit is now accepted to be approximately 1.4 times the mass of the sun; any white dwarf with less than this mass will stay a white dwarf forever, while a star that exceeds this mass is destined to end its life in that most violent of explosions: a supernova.

## Why is there an upper limit to the mass of a white dwarf group of answer choices?

Why is there an upper limit to the mass of a white dwarf? The more massive the white dwarf, the greater the degeneracy pressure and the faster the speeds of its electrons. Our Sun will probably undergo at least one nova when it becomes a white dwarf about 5 billion years from now.

## Which is closest in mass to a white dwarf?

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense: Its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth.

1.4 solar masses